[Machine-made translation without garantee of correctness]
Near-death experiencers are often afraid to report on their experiences. They fear that they are not being taken seriously or to be maintained even for crazy. Who told his doctor, encounters often lack of understanding or the comment “that you have dreamed only”. A patient had to be told even by one of the nuns, all of this is “Work of the devil” (see here). However, near-death experience have this feeling for life almost always the secure feeling that they here have experienced something real, and in contrast to a dream.
The world splits into two camps, those who believe, and those who do not believe it.
Monism – current science
The current science is based on the hypothesis of monism: there is only that which we can see and touch. There is nothing except that which consists of matter and can be measured with physical instruments. The body is a very complicated biological machine, sits the consciousness in the brain. A soul is there only in the sense of a “psyche”, i.e. in the sense of the emotional components of ICH consciousness. Neuroscience has made great progress since the development of the MRI (magnetic resonance). This technique can be pictorially represent and connect mental experiences suitable applied research activities in different places of our brains. We can represent a map of our brains, we know where the language center sits, where sit centres for positive feelings and bad feelings, we know that an activity in a region of the brain to precede any human activity. Yet it has not found however the exact fit of the ICH-consciousness. David Precht there rather eight different instances, which are associated with the ego-consciousness. For me no really satisfactory explanation of my self. This also means that both hypotheses are the monism as the notion that the brain is the place and reason of our consciousness, as such, generally recognized, but unproven assumptions. You must as well distinguish between consciousness and personality to personality traits in the brain see here.
From the point of view of the monism near-death experiences are as follows: the person has a need to look for meaning and sense of security. He developed the religions from this desire. From this desire, he now form such experiences that satisfy his desire for a higher meaning and even after a life after death in his imagination. Through observation of people and different ethnic groups, you can watch this need and conclude that this need exists indeed in many places. This is of course no evidence that near-death experiences were just a hallucination formed by these needs.
Representatives of the monistic interpretation of near-death experiences: Michael Schröter Kuhn Hardt (psychiatrist), Prof. Huber Knoblauch (sociologist)
Dualism – another model
In contrast, stands the ancient hypothesis of dualism: there is a body and a soul. The soul lives in a subtle world outside our physical dimension and be undetectable for our sense of perception and for our measuring instruments. Many Mystics say, you have already lived in the otherworldly world before birth and have the feeling that you were there at home, that would be the actual reality, which is available through our realistic world in such near-death experience or This world with include. Small children have to have certain connections or memory of this world beyond. Memories, this would be at the grow approximately at the age of six, losing and then subconsciously still exist. This was however the basis for the formation of religion and for people’s need for a higher meaning and after a life after death.
When you listen to the reports of near-death experiences, one has the impression that the question actually experience and see how the soul separates from the body for a time and then again returns to him.
Representatives of the dualistic interpretation of near death experiences: Raymond A. Moody (philosopher and psychiatrist), Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, Michael Sabom (cardiologist, United States), Prof. Kenneth Ring (psychology, United States), Pim van Lommel (cardiologist, Netherlands), Walter van Laack (orthopedist, Germany) and many others.
We have the need for meaning and life, because we have an otherworldly soul come such Jenseits-“Hallucinations”, because a primal urge is genetically designed for life meaning? A decision, which of the two hypotheses is true, it is not possible at this level. It’s like wondering what was there first, chicken or egg. It leads to a circular argument. The dispute between these two views is ancient and was held at the ancient Greeks.
By the way the camp among the normal population in Western countries are about 50% – 50% split (deviations depending on the country and age of the respondents). Only among American physicians, only 18% believe in near-death experiences. In Asia and Africa, arguably South America, belief in an immortal soul is common knowledge.
One needs to be said in any case: no matter, it belongs to which camp or what hypothesis you have embraced, is the near death experiences a phenomenon to be taken seriously, investigated in numerous studies. By no means is sign of incipient madness, as some near-death experience fear. There is not a single instance in which a near-death experience later evolved to a psychiatric disorder.
Monistic explanation attempts
These near-death experiences are so real and can prove themselves or certain malfunctions of our brain are easy?
The monist theory, there are now following objections to a reality of near-death experiences:
Hormones: the happiness was generated by certain endorphins, so happiness producing messengers of the nervous system. In particular, the brain unlock ketamine-like substances in the moment of the cardiac cycle which both generate a feeling of happiness and result in longer survival of brain cells.
When an accident or surgery, is the body under a constant stress, due to the injury. Does not experience, that you get with operations, to a feeling of happiness. If now the mere fact of the cardiac arrest leads to an endorphin release, then the brain of endorphins should be at every dead, because at every dead, Yes, the heart is stopped. That would be to check for this hypothesis.
Once the near-death experience again awake, or in your body, you feel their pain again, but the feeling of happiness is only in their memory. It would be a hormonal effect, then they would have to stop longer, because it takes some time until the hormones are taken down again. You can watch this at the NDE cases during traffic accidents, where immediately after completion of the NDE with “Return to the body”, the guard 3-D awareness there is the people of pain in her body report and the happiness is gone then and exists only in the memory. Many other NDE where patients until a few hours regain their normal consciousness after a resuscitation or after an operation, you can not answer this particular question after the aftermath of any hormones.
But even if the feeling of happiness were a result of hormones, then the hormone can explain only part of this small and not many other details. There is no adequate explanation for the near-death experience.
Separation of the own body, out of body experience (floating experience about your own body): the brain is connected to the body via certain corridors, a Centre for the perception of one’s own body is located in the temporal lobe (parietal lobe). The electrical stimulation of the brain region creates a feeling of Los solved being from your own body. At the moment of the cardiac cycle would now this switch no longer work and therefore the illusion break one from their own bodies produce. Drugs such as LSD and the anaesthetic ketamine can produce the feeling of detachment from the body.
But this theory but does not explain why one detached is not only the body, but your own body from a bird’s eye view and be seen. So, the correct observations at remote locations during a NDE cannot be explained. In addition, this theory explains not the numerous out-of-body experiences from people who are not clinically dead have no cardiac cycle, which are, for example, only relaxed in a deck chair. With what mechanism should they switch off now the switching Center in the temporal lobe?
Knowledge of resuscitation processes from the television: materialists claim that the operations would be known during a resuscitation from general television and that Nahtoderfahrene just together make themselves from this knowledge out her story. To prevent this, M. Sabom questioned 25 reanimated patients who had a near-death experience in his study about their resuscitation. Each of them reported at least one aspect that did not match the reality. By contrast, all reports of real near-death experience were correct.
Tunnel experience: neuroscientists argue that the brain functions centralised in the situation of the cardiac cycle, that focus only on the middle of the eye was so also in the visual cortex, all other trappings will appear blurry and forms the wall of the tunnel.
Light experience: inhibiting nerve impulses on the visual cortex in the rear part of the core would lifted through the cardiac cycle, it would lead the to a parent action they cells that pretend a bright light.
Life review: inhibitory nerves effects on the memory in the cerebral cortex were repealed, that is why there is now free access to all memories.
But these hypotheses are unproven, no one can say why in the energy deficiency condition a brain cells should generate less suddenly, the other but more electricity. It is a materialist, neuro-scientific point of view of the brain completely illogical that at a cardio-vascular deadlock, in which the brain of the energy supply is cut off, the brain will work better than in the normal waking state. We must not forget that normally no brain waves in the EEG are measurable at this time. In a State of cardiac arrest cardiovascular has no awareness of the oversized man, but in a coma. In emergency medicine, one assumes that the brain suffers no later than 10 minutes after a cardiac cycle irretrievable damage.
Deceased relatives: here trying to explain that many people simply have the desire to see deceased relatives you psychologically and now form a this meeting. This theory cannot explain however why children meet experience not their much beloved still living mother at a near death but as one long-deceased grandmother, who have never seen them and know only from photos. Dream Act almost always by living near people or by people with whom you had to do has on this day. There are also some cases where people in the near-death experience meet a relative who recently died, even though the people have received no news at all of death of this relative.
Fantasy construct or faulty memory, which is due to cultural conditioning: many skeptics say that what we have learned in our faith education reflect the near-death experiences, in particular the transcendental part, simply. And, indeed, talk of a forever living soul, God, Angels in many NT experiences is.
However says that around the world people from all cultures and religions have the same near-death experiences: Christians, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, atheists, natives, Eskimos, etc. This resulted in both the study of Dr. Pim van Lommel and the NDERF study by Dr. Jeffrey Long. And that children under 5 years of age experience the same, before they were educated and influenced in their respective religion. I myself would according to my Roman Catholic catechism expect that we first a couple of 100 years in the grave after death until the last judgment, and then only resurrect. Or, after a popular Christian imagination: we go after death to the Pearly Gates, there is Peter and leaves into either us or not, and then he shows us a place on a cloud or anywhere else. But there’s no Peter and no angels with wings, sitting on clouds and playing harp in the near-death experiences. The near-death experiences, worldwide reported to us from all cultures in similar nature have nothing to do nothing with me well known Christian faith debossed and certainly nothing to do with many other cultures. They are even in contrast with many Christian interpretations and addressed by some churches, even though they report over a further living soul. I knew a Baptist pastor who declined this near death reports with vehemence and attracted neuroscientific explanations with lack of energy of the brain, and there are certainly many other pastors and priests with the same attitude. Closest to the near-death experience would match some content in the Tibetan Book of the dead, but who know that or read it?
More arguments for dualism
Medical the following takes place when a cardiac arrest: after a cardiac arrest, the blood supply to the brain is interrupted within 1 second, the man loses consciousness and falls into a deep coma: he has no reflexes, the pupils are far and no longer respond to light, exposing the ancient reptiles reflexes of the brain stem and even the respiratory center. On average 15 seconds after a cardiac arrest, in each case but at the latest after 20 seconds, no brain power is more measurable in the EEG, there is a zero line. According to the present understanding of medicine, a person who is in a coma or even in a death situation of cardiac arrest, can have no consciousness, because this is Yes according to conventional in the brain and the brain no longer works. Also on a well organised intensive care, it takes one to 2 minutes, until an effective resuscitation. Only blood pressure around 40mmHG produced during a resuscitation (CPR), which is experimentally demonstrated. This pressure not enough brain cells to work again. The brain works at the earliest, then again when the heart from its own pulse strikes again. In many cases, but the brain first recover from the effects of the cardiac arrest and must out. That someone immediately hitting the eyes to the heart massage, that exist only in Hollywood movies. If consciousness is a complex function of brain activity, there can be no consciousness during a resuscitation.
The patients in this study of P. v. Lommel were between two and clinically dead for 8 minutes. The patients who were reported near-death experiences had made but very differentiated experiences.
If skeptics now argue the whole hallucination playing himself during the first 15 seconds, which is still electrical activity in the brain, then can cannot explain, that Nahtoderfahrenen report details from the reanimation took place then yes certainly, so during a time of completely missing electrical brain activity. Based on the observations of the near-death experience about the own resuscitation can be to prove that the near-death experience for the most part takes place during the time of lack of brain activity.
Cases of cardiac arrest are medically completely inexplicable now during an operation. In these cases, there can be no consciousness for two reasons: firstly because the general anesthesia, and secondly cardiac arrest due to. Normally, people have a memory neither to the anesthesia still in the cardiac arrest.
There are some cases where he can report NDE learn details, to whose attention he could have no access according to the monistic. Example:
The 9-year old Katie, in the swimming pool drowned, revived and unconscious in the hospital, could exactly tell what was playing himself at home during this time with her. This was confirmed by her parents. (Dr. Melvin Morse and Paul Perry, “to the light – we can learn what children, who were near death”)
This now is not enough who as evidence, which may continue reading: namely, that also blind actually visually and graphically can see even blind born during near-death experience or out-of-body experiences!